miércoles, 27 de marzo de 2013

2DA GUÍA DE INGLÉS BÁSICO. Explicación en inglés con ejercicios

NUEVA GUÍA DE REPASO DE INGLÉS BÁSICO.
LO QUE SE DEBE SABER HASTA 7MO BÁSICO!!
Incluye ejercicios!


Departamento de Inglés

REVIEW OF CONTENTS


Objectives: The students must be able to remember some basic knowledge studied during their school period and apply it during the year.

1.- PRONOUNS

A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a common noun or a proper noun. There are different kinds of pronouns.
The words I, you, he, she, it, we and they are called personal pronouns. They take the place of nouns and are used as the subject of the verb in a sentence.

The subject of a sentence is the person, animal, place or thing that does the action shown by the verb.

Personal Pronouns

My name is David. I am the youngest in the family.
This is my father. He is a teacher.
This is my mother. She is a lawyer.
I have a brother and two sisters.
They are Peter, Sharon and Jenny.
I have a dog. It is called Lucky.
Lucky, you are a good dog.
Good morning, children! You may sit down now.
My family and I live in a big city. We have an apartment.

The words me, you, him, her, it, us and them are also personal pronouns. They also take the place of nouns.
These pronouns are used as the object of the verb in a sentence.

I am standing on my head. Look at me.
My mother is kind. Everybody likes her.
Lisa, I told you to tidy your bed!
Sharon and Jenny! Dad is waiting for you!
Lucky and I are playing in the park. Dad is watching us.
You must not play with the knife. Give it to me.
Pick up your toys and put them away.

Baby birds cannot fly.
Mother bird has to feed them.

Tom likes riding my bicycle.
I sometimes lend it to him.

There are three groups of pronouns: first person, second person and third person.
The person speaking is called the first person.
The first-person pronouns are I or me (in the singular) and we or us (in the plural).
The person spoken to is called the second person. The second-person pronoun is you (in both singular and plural).
The person (or animal, or thing) spoken about is called the third person. The third-person pronouns are he or him, she or her, and it (in the singular), and they or them (in the plural).
The word I is always spelled with a capital letter.
The pronoun he is used for men and boys, she for women and girls, and it for things and animals.
Here is a table to help you.

Subject Object

First person singular: I   /    me
Second person singular: you  / you
Third person singular: he /him, she / her, it / it
First person plural: we / us
Second person plural: you / you
Third person plural: they / them


INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

The words who, whom, whose, what and which are called interrogative pronouns.
These pronouns are used to ask questions.

Who
Who is he talking to?
Who are those people?

Whom
Whom are you playing with?
Whom is he talking to?

What
What is your dog’s name?
What are you talking about?
What is the time?

Which
Which of these bags is yours?
Which do you prefer?

Whose
Whose is this umbrella?
Whose are these gloves?






REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves are called reflexive pronouns.
They refer to the person or animal that is the subject of the verb.

Reflexive Pronouns

I made this cake myself.
Be careful with the knife. You’ll cut yourself.
Michael is looking at himself in the mirror.
Susan has hurt herself.
Our cat washes itself after each meal.
We organized the party all by ourselves.
Come in, children, and find yourselves a seat.
Baby birds are too young to look after themselves.

Singular                                                        Plural
First person                          (I,me) myself                                    (we,us) ourselves
Second person                     (you) yourself                                    (you) yourselves
Third person                                    (he, him) himself                                (they, them) themselves
(she, her) herself                               (they, them) themselves
(it) itself                                              (they, them) themselves



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

The words this, these, that and those are called demonstrative pronouns. They are showing words.

That is John’s house.
That is a mountain.
Those are horses.
What are those?
We can do better than that.
No, that’s not mine.
That’s amazing!
Hello, who is that speaking, please?
Hello, is that you, George?

This is my house.
This is a hill.
These are donkeys.
What is this?
Did you drop this?
Hi, Jane! This is Michael!

You use this and these when you point to things near you.
You use that and those when you point to things farther away.

Demonstrative pronouns can be singular or plural:
Singular         Plural
this                  these
that                  those


Exercise 1
Draw a line to join each of the subject pronouns to the object pronoun that matches.
I  - he - it  - she - they – you - we
us - her – you – them – me – him - it

Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the correct pronouns.
1)    Peter and I are brothers. _______ share a bedroom
together.
2)     Sue isn’t well. Dad is taking _______ to see a doctor.
3)     My brother is a teacher. _______ teaches English.
4)     All his students like _______ very much.
5)     Children, _______ are making too much noise!
6)     Who are those people? Where are _______ from?
7)     Mom is a doctor. _______ works in a hospital.
8)     The sky is getting dark. _______ is going to rain.
9)     John, we are all waiting for _______. Are you coming with _______?
10)  May _______ borrow your pen?
11)  Yes, of course. When can you return _______ to _______?
12)  What are _______ reading, Jenny?

Exercise 3
Fill in the blanks with the correct reflexive pronouns from the box.

yourselves      themselves     itself               myself
himself            yourself           ourselves        herself


1) No one can help us. We have to help ____________.
2) Jane always makes the bed by ____________.
3) They painted the wall all by ____________.
4) I hurt ____________ in the playground yesterday.
5) John, you must behave __________ before your friends.
6) Children, you must do the homework ____________.
7) Tom defended ____________ against the bullies.
8) The dog is scratching ____________.

Exercise 4
Write the correct interrogative pronouns in the blanks to complete the sentences:

1 _______ is the matter with you?
2 _______ invented the computer?
3 _______ of the twins is older?
4 _______ do you wish to speak to?
5 _______ is this car in front of our house?
6 _______ knows the answer?
7 _______ came first, the chicken or the egg?
8 _______ would you like to drink?
9 _______ of them do you think will win the race?
10 _______ is the word for a stamp collector?


THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

The simple present tense expresses a general truth or a customary action.

Mary enjoys singing.
Peter sometimes lends me his bike.
Cows eat grass.
Monkeys like bananas.
Tom collects stamps.
The earth goes around the sun.
It often snows in winter.
We always wash our hands before meals.
We eat three meals a day.
Father takes the dog for a walk every morning.

Exercise 1
Underline the verbs in the following sentences.

1 The children go to school by bus.
2 Bats sleep during the day.
3 These toys belong to Kathy.
4 Every pupil has a good dictionary.
5 Polar bears live at the North Pole.
6 Most children learn very fast.
7 Mr. Thomas teaches us science.
8 The earth goes around the sun.
9 We never cross the street without looking.
10 Many stores close on Sunday.

Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the simple present tense of the verbs in parentheses.

1 Winter ________ after autumn. (come)
2 A dog ________. (bark)
3 You ________ tired. (look)
4 Everyone ________ mistakes. (make)
5 Ali ________ in a department store. (work)
6 Judy ________ English very well. (speak)
7 Tim’s knee ________. (hurt)
8 Monkeys ________ bananas. (like)
9 Kate always ________ sandwiches for lunch. (eat)
10 He ________ very fast. (type)


THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) TENSE

When do you use the present progressive tense? To talk about actions in the present, or things that are still going on or happening now.

I’m playing chess with my friend.
She’s riding a horse.
He’s taking a walk in the park.
The man’s counting the money.
They are practicing tai chi.
We’re rushing to the airport to meet Mr. Smith.
They are still sleeping.
They are swimming in the sea.
What are they doing?
What’s happening?
Why aren’t you doing your homework?
Aren’t I sitting up straight?

Form the present progressive tense like this:

am + present participle
is + present participle
are + present participle

The present participle is the form of a verb ending with -ing. For example:
show + ing = showing
come + ing = coming

You have to double the last letter of some verbs before you add -ing. For example:
get + ing = getting rob + ing = robbing
nod + ing = nodding stop + ing = stopping
jog + ing = jogging swim + ing = swimming

Notice that the verbs above are all short verbs of just
one syllable.

They all end with a consonant such as b, d, g, m, p, t and have only one vowel before the consonant.

If a verb ends in e, you usually have to drop the e before you add -ing. For example:
chase + ing = chasing
cycle + ing = cycling
drive + ing = driving
smile + ing = smiling

Use the present progressive tense to talk about things you have planned to do, or things that are going to happen in the future. To form the present progressive tense, use am,
is and are as helping verbs or auxiliary verbs.

We are going camping tomorrow.
I’m starting piano lessons soon.
Jim’s parents are taking him to Texas next week.
My favorite TV program is starting in a minute.
All our friends are coming.
Who’s bringing salad for the barbecue? I am.
I am visiting Joe next week.
Where are you going for your vacation?
What are we eating for dinner?


Exercise 1
Write the present participle of these verbs on the blanks.
1 come ____________ 7 go ____________
2 run ____________ 8 ask ____________
3 sleep ____________ 9 catch ____________
4 fall ____________ 10 write ____________
5 jump ____________ 11 drop ____________
6 climb ____________ 12 bring ____________

Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the present progressive tense of the
verbs in parentheses.
1 They ________________ the roller-coaster ride. (enjoy)
2 Jill ________________ her hair. (wash)
3 It ________________ dark. (get)
4 The dentist ________________ Sue’s teeth. (examine)
5 The train ________________ through the tunnel. (pass)
6 The men _______________ very hard in the sun. (work)
7 What _________ the theater _________ today? (show)
8 We ________________ a snowman. (make)
9 The plane ________________ above the clouds. (fly)
10 The teachers ________________ a meeting. (have)

THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE

Use the simple past tense to talk about things that happened in the past. The simple past tense is also used to talk about things that happened in stories.

I bought a new camera last week.
Joe learned to play the guitar very quickly.
We drove to the safari park last weekend.
The giant panda gave birth to a cub last night.
Yesterday Dad took me to the carnival.
The plane landed a few minutes ago.
The children visited a farm during the holidays.
Who invented the computer?
Jack and Jill went up the hill.
Little Red Riding Hood decided to visit her grandmother.
The Three Bears found Goldilocks asleep in their house.



REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS

The simple past tense of most verbs ends in -ed. These verbs are called regular verbs.

Mom opened the door for us.
Sally petted the dog.
That event happened long ago.
We visited our uncle last week.
They walked to school together yesterday.
They worked until twelve last night.
Dad tried to fix the light.
William Tell aimed at the apple on his son’s head.

Base Form                 Simple Past
aim                             aimed
bake                           baked
open                           opened
happen                       happened
pull                              pulled
push                            pushed
scold                           scolded
shout                           shouted
visit                             visited
wait                             waited
walk                            walked
work                           worked



The simple past tense is usually formed by adding –ed to the verb. For example:

jump + ed = jumped               lift + ed = lifted
laugh + ed = laughed             look + ed = looked

If the verb ends with -e, just add -d. For example:

agree + d = agreed                hate + d = hated
die + d = died                         live + d = lived

Remember these spelling rules:
You must double the last letter of some verbs before adding -ed. For example:

fan + ed = fanned                  pat + ed = patted
grab + ed = grabbed              rip + ed = ripped
nod + ed = nodded                slam + ed = slammed

Notice that the verbs above are all short verbs of just one syllable. They all end with a consonant such as b, d, m, n, p, t, and have only a single vowel before the consonant.

With verbs that end in -y, change the y to i before adding -ed. For example:

bury + ed = buried                 fry + ed = fried
carry + ed = carried               hurry + ed = hurried
cry + ed = cried                     try + ed = tried

The simple past form of some verbs does not end in -ed.
Such verbs are called irregular verbs.
The simple past tense of some irregular verbs does not change at all.

He hit the ball over the net.
Dad read to us last night.
He shut the door.
I put some sugar in my
coffee.

Base Form                 Simple Past
beat                            beat
burst                           burst
cost                             cost
cut                              cut
hit                                hit
hurt                             hurt
put                              put
read                            read
split                             split
shut                             shut

Most irregular verbs, however, take a different form in the simple past tense.

I lost my pen on the bus.
We sold our car last week.
The baby slept right thought the night.
Peter got a watch for his birthday.
I heard a noise in the night.
He brought his pet mouse to school.
My book fell off the desk.

Base Form                 Simple Past
bend                           bent
break                          broke
bring                           brought
buy                             bought
fall                               fell
fly                               flew
get                              got
hear                            heard
keep                           kept
lose                             lost
sell                              sold
shoot                           shot
sleep                           slept

Exercise 1
Write the simple past tense of these verbs on the  blanks.

1 take ____________ 7 tell ____________
2 walk ____________ 8 write ____________
3 rain ____________ 9 sit ____________
4 shut ____________ 10 read ____________
5 open ____________ 11 close ____________
6 cry ____________ 12 cook ____________

Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the correct simple past tense of the verbs in parentheses.

1 She ___________ home alone. (go)
2 The wind ___________ throughout the night. (blow)
3 An apple ___________ on his head. (drop)
4 The Princess’s ball ___________ into the well. (roll)
5 A frog __________ into the well and ___________ it
back to her. (jump/bring)
6 Jack ___________ the highest grade in his English
class. (get)
7 The party ___________ at 8:00 P.M. (begin)
8 He __________ his old car and __________ a new
one. (sell/buy)
9 Jack ___________ up the ladder carefully. (climb)
10 Who ___________ all the windows? (shut)










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